GENETIC CONTROL FOR MATURITY AND YIELD TRAITS IN MAIZE
An understanding of the genetic control of a trait is very important for the efficient implementation of a breeding program. This study aimed to obtain information about the genetic control of male and female flowering and crop humidity, related to the maturation and grain yield and mass attributes of a thousand seeds, through diallel analysis. Thirteen elite lines of the Coodetec breeding program were selected and seventy-eight hybrids were synthesized as a half table diallel. The hybrids and parentals were evaluated in Palotina, Mariluz and São Pedro do Iguaçu, in a 10x10 square lattice experimental design, with three replications. Male and female flowering, crop humidity, thousand seed weight and grain yield were evaluated. Analyses of individual and joint variance and of diallel analysis were performed using the Hayman methodology. Analyzes of individual variance reveal variability in all the traits studied. The genetic model was observed in at least two tests of significance of the dominant additive model. The genetic information showed that dominant alleles are found more frequently in the genitors, except for yield, which is predominantly recessive. Dominant gene effects are predominant in the control of the variables studied with an overdominance interaction between the alleles. The CD069 line shows a higher number of dominant genes for maturation and the CD038 line had a higher number of dominant genes for yield. It is possible to have greater selection gains for male and female flowering and one thousand seed weight in the Palotina environment. For crop humidity greater gains are possible in the Mariluz and Palotina environments.