Functional Plant Breeding Journal <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p>The FPBJ – Functional Plant Breeding Journal – constitutes an important instrument for the publication of original research papers related to plant breeding. The FPBJ aims to publish original research papers focusing on the cultivar development. In this sense, it covers topics related to germplasm and breeding methods such as recurrent selection, backcrossing, mating designs, breeding programs. It also comprises methodological, statistical, computational and molecular advances when used in the context of the cultivar development. The FPBJ covers all annual and perennial crop species.</p> </div> en-US Functional Plant Breeding Journal Resistance to anthracnose (Colletotrichum scovillei) in Capsicum annuum: inheritance, QTL identification and progenies selection to develop resistant cultivars <p>Developing sweet and chili peppers resistant cultivars to anthracnose is a challenge for plant breeders inciting the search for resistance sources, inheritance studies, identification of loci, and recombinant inbred resistant lines to fight the disease. In this report, we determined the resistance to anthracnose inheritance in Capsicum annuum L. and identified QTL in unripe fruits. The F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 generations were obtained from the crossing between genotypes UENF 2285 and UENF 1381. The resistance variables evaluated were area under the disease progress curve, incubation period, and latent period in unripe fruits. Disease assessment was performed using a grading scale for a period of seven days after inoculation. For the QTL identification, resistance evaluation was associated with previously mapped molecular markers. At least six genes control the resistance, with one gene with greater effect are responsible for anthracnose resistance. Partial dominance and the additive-dominant model explained the genetic control of the resistance. Six minor QTLs were identified for resistance to anthracnose in the unripe fruit, explaining 23.16% of trait variation. The joint selection of anthracnose resistance and fruit variables resulted in the selection of 60 promising progenies to continue the breeding for sweet pepper resistance to Colletotrichum scovillei.</p> Ingrid Gaspar da Costa Geronimo Paola Alvares Bianchi Maria do Socorro Bezerra de Araújo Antonio André da Silva Alencar Lígia Renata Almeida da Silva Cláudia Pombo Sudré Rosimara Barboza Bispo Helaine Christine Cancela Ramos Rosana Rodrigues ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-07-06 2024-07-06 6 Assessing the combining ability of grain sorghum hybrids using mixed models <p>The main objective of breeding programs for grain sorghum is to increase yield while simultaneously reducing the growth cycle length and plant height. In this study, we sought to identify promising lines of grain sorghum with these traits. The experiment was carried out in 2012 in the experimental area of Embrapa Agrossilvopastoril,<br>in Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Using a partial diallel scheme, controlled crosses were performed between two groups of grain sorghum lines and we evaluated the following<br>vegetative and productive traits: days to flowering (FL), plant height (PH), and grain yield (GY). Restricted maximum likelihood and best linear unbiased prediction analyses<br>were performed to estimate variance components and predict genetic values, respectively. The general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA)<br>of combination were estimated, with likelihood ratio test values revealing significant effects of the GCA of both parents for the traits FL, PH and GY, and, the predictive<br>accuracy was greater than 0.90. The analyses have demonstrated that the hybrids H11, H22, H31, H32, H36, H51, H55, H56 and H71 have good combining capacity estimates.<br>Their average flowering periods ranged from 57.06 to 60.44 days, with plant heights varying between 1.56 and 1.61 meters. The average grain yield ranged from<br>2419.08 to 3105.44 kg ha-1. These traits hold significant importance within the context of sorghum breeding.</p> Arthur Mayrink Elizeu Marco Antônio Peixoto Paulo Eduardo Teodoro Flávio Dessaune Tardin Cícero Beserra de Menezes Leonardo Lopes Bhering ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-07-06 2024-07-06 6 ‘BRS FC416’: carioca common bean cultivar with high commercial quality of grain and resistance to Fusarium wilt, anthracnose, and common bacterial blight <p>‘BRS FC416’ is a common bean cultivar with carioca bean grain of very light beige seed coat color, high sieve yield, and high 100-seed weight. It exhibits wide adaptation to different production regions and high mean yield (2,529 kg ha-1), especially for the Central (2,541 kg ha-1) and Northeast (1,423 kg ha-1) regions, and high yield potential (4,219 kg ha-1). ‘BRS FC416’ also has high resistance to Fusarium wilt and intermediate resistance to anthracnose and to common bacterial blight.</p> Helton Santos Pereira Thiago Lívio Pessoa Oliveira de Souza Marcelo Sfeir Aguiar Luís Cláudio de Faria Joaquim Geraldo Cáprio da Costa Paula Pereira Torga Saulo Muniz Martins Cléber Morais Guimarães Válter Martins de Almeida Leonardo Cunha Melo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-07-06 2024-07-06 6 Can near infrared spectroscopy be used to select superior popcorn lines under drought conditions? <p>This study sought to answer the following questions: i) Is it possible to use the near-infrared (NIR) spectrum for the indirect selection of superior popcorn genotypes<br>based on grain yield (GY), popping expansion (PE), and volume of expanded popcorn per hectare (VP)? ii) Is it possible to detect differences between different water<br>conditions (WC) applied to the soil using NIR? iii) Is it possible to identify the phenological stages (days from male anthesis) of the crop in a given WC using NIR, considering<br>the morphophysiological transformations during plant development? To this end, thirteen popcorn lines, under well-watered and soil water stress imposed at male<br>anthesis, were evaluated for GY, PE, and VP traits and correlated with NIR indices in the 908 to 1680 nm spectrum. Measurements were made at different times in relation to<br>male anthesis. It was impossible to associate the NIR spectra with the GY, PE, and VP traits due to the lack of correlation based on the R2 values resulting from the analysis of<br>standard normal variate (SNV), first derivative, and SNV + first derivative. In turn, via NIR, it was possible to differentiate the WCs and associate them with the phenological<br>stage the plants were in.</p> Jacymara Lopes Pereira Antônio Teixeira do Amaral Júnior Samuel Henrique Kamphorst Cibele Maria Stivanin de Almeida Jhean Torres Leite Valter Jário de Lima Danielle Leal Lamego Rosimeire Barboza Bispo José Gabriel de Souza Silva Leticia Peixoto Gomes Iago Henrique Barros Eliemar Campostrini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-07-06 2024-07-06 6 Comparison of grain yield and identification of QTLs of rice populations derived from the Bulk and SSD (Single Seed Descent) methods <p>Bulk and SSD are widely used methods for developing segregating populations in plant genetic improvement programs. This work aimed to analyze grain yield (GY) QTLs using two populations from the Epagri 108 × Irat 122 cross, advanced by the SSD (F8 generation) and Bulk (F7:8 generation) methods. The 158 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of each method (SSD and Bulk) were evaluated for two years (2017 and 2018 crop seasons), in an 18x18 lattice square experimental design with two replications. The RILs were genotyped using the DArTseq® methodology, which generated around 6 thousand SNPs and SilicoDArTs. The statistical model adopted for the analysis of GY data was a mixed linear model (MLM). For the first and second year evaluations and joint analysis, the RILs-Bulk group presented higher productivity averages when compared to the group RILs-SSD and Checks. However, in relation to the genetic variance component, the SSD group presented the highest estimate followed by Bulk and Checks. The GY of the RILs-Bulk ranged from 4,010.75 kg.ha-1 to 5,815.42 kg.ha-1, while the RILs-SSD ranged from 3,321.76 kg.ha-1 to 8,096.27 kg.ha-1, both exceeding the Check group, which ranged from 2,754.30 kg.ha-1 to 3,643.73 kg.ha-1. For QTL analysis, multiple interval mapping was applied, with 2,115 SNPs genotyped in the RILs-SSD, resulting in three QTLs identified (qGYLD6, qGYLD6.2 and qGYLD9). For RILs-Bulk, with 2,354 markers, three QTLs were identified (qGYLD6 and qGYLD9), and in the joint analysis, one QTL was mapped (qGYLD7). The next step will be to validate the markers identified by genotyping accessions from the Germplasm bank before being used in assisted selection for the GY trait. Both the SSD and Bulk methods were efficient in obtaining high grain yield RILs and in the ability to identify QTLs. However, the Bulk method was more practical to handle and cheaper to obtain RILs compared to SSD.</p> Mariana Rodrigues Feitosa Ramos João Antônio Mendonça Rosana Pereira Vianello Claudio Brondani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-07-06 2024-07-06 6 BRS FC422: Common bean cultivar with large carioca bean grain and resistance to diseases <p>BRS FC422 is a common bean cultivar with large carioca bean grain of very light beige seed coat color and 100-seed weight of 27 g. It has wide adaptation to different production regions; high mean yield (2,459 kg ha-1), with greater superiority to check cultivars in Brazil’s Central region (2,399 kg ha-1) and higher yield in the South region (2,905 kg ha-1); and high yield potential (4,347 kg ha-1). BRS FC422 is classified as having moderate resistant to Fusarium wilt and anthracnose and intermediate resistance to common bacterial blight.</p> Leonardo Cunha Melo Thiago Lívio Pessoa Oliveira de Souza Marcelo Sfeir Aguiar Luís Cláudio de Faria Joaquim Geraldo Cáprio da Costa Paula Pereira Torga Cléber Morais Guimarães Hélio Wilson Lemos de Carvalho Valter Martins de Almeida Vilmar de Araújo Pontes Júnior Helton Santos Pereira ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-07-06 2024-07-06 6 Forte Guarani: First conilon cultivar selected for high grain caffeine content <p>Forte Guarani is a Coffea canephora cultivar derived from clones discovered and bred by farmers. It was evaluated in the northern state of Espírito Santo, Brazil,<br>for caffeine content, soluble solids, chlorogenic acids, yield, plant vigor, and pest and disease resistance. This cultivar has a high grain caffeine content as well as good coffee<br>yields.</p> Fábio Luiz Partelli Gleison Oliosi Adriana Farah Juliana de Paula Lima ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-07-06 2024-07-06 6