Functional Plant Breeding Journal <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p>The FPBJ – Functional Plant Breeding Journal – constitutes an important instrument for the publication of original research papers related to plant breeding. The FPBJ aims to publish original research papers focusing on the cultivar development. In this sense, it covers topics related to germplasm and breeding methods such as recurrent selection, backcrossing, mating designs, breeding programs. It also comprises methodological, statistical, computational and molecular advances when used in the context of the cultivar development. The FPBJ covers all annual and perennial crop species.</p> </div> en-US Functional Plant Breeding Journal CONTRIBUTION OF THE ADDITIVE GENETIC EFFECTS IN SOYBEAN BREEDING AIMING AT THE AGRONOMIC IDEOTYPE <p>The development of new genotypes and their availability to the agricultural market is decisive for the success of the Brazilian soybean production chain. This study aimed to estimate the components of variance and genetic parameters of aspects of agronomic importance and to predict the selection of transgressive soybean populations and families based on the agronomic ideotype. The segregating families were conducted in an enlarged block design, composed of 285 F3 segregating families corresponding to the unusual treatments, and together with seven commercial cultivars assigned as common treatments, arranged in four replications. The characters of agronomic interest were measured the first pod insertion height, plant height, number of pods on the main stem, number of pods on the branches, pods containing only one seed, pods containing two seeds, pods containing three seeds, pods containing four seeds and seed mass. Were estimated additive genetic variance, genetic variance of the F3 segregating families, genetic variance of F2 segregating population, residual variance, phenotypic variance, narrow sense heritability, coefficient of determination for the effects of the F3 segregating family, coefficient of determination for the effects of the progeny, genetic variation coefficient, residual variation coefficient and predicted genetic ranking for the best F2 segregating populations and F3 segregating families. The pronounced additive genetic gains in the progeny showed higher values for the characters measured: first pod insertion height with 1.84%, for the family and population, the additivity presented the highest values for the number of pods with four grains. The selection of the progenies through the agronomic ideotype based on the greatest genetic gains of the morphological characters weighted by the largest seed mass will thus lead these populations to joint selection for the other yield components.</p> Maurício Horbach Barbosa Ivan Ricardo Carvalho José Antonio Gonzalez da Silva Deivid Araújo Magano Velci Queiróz de Souza Vinícius Jardel Szareski Francine Lautenchleger Danieli Jacoboski Hutra Natã Balssan Moura Murilo Vieira Loro ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-03 2021-04-03 3 1 EARLYTROP: A PROGRAM TO ADAPT 100% TROPICAL MAIZE GERMPLASM TO SHORT-SEASON ENVIRONMENTS <p>Tropical maize germplasm can contribute useful and unique genes. It can provide greater resistance to pests and diseases, better quality crops, and trait genes and combinations not often present in commercially available northern U.S. temperate hybrids. Uniform farmer fields with genetically identical hybrids have a high risk of genetic vulnerabilities due to disease epidemics and abiotic stresses, especially after the recent major industry mergers. The EarlyTROP program was created with the long-term goal to increase the genetic diversity of short-season maize carrying 100% tropical germplasm. Five tropical maize populations were assessed for adaptation to ND short-season environments: NDSHLC (an improved composite from highland Mexico), BS16 (an improved strain of ETO from Colombia), BS28 (an improved strain of Tuxpeño from Mexico), BS29 (an improved strain of Suwan-1 from Thailand), and BS39 (an improved strain of Tusón mainly from Brazil and Cuba). The program conducted three cycles of stratified mass selection for days to silking near Casselton and Prosper, ND for all varieties except for NDSHLC, which had six selection cycles of stratified mass selection. Selected populations (NDHighland, NDEto, NDTuxpeño, NDSuwan-1, and NDTusón), and 31 checks including standard known and commercialized population and single-cross hybrids were evaluated across 12 short-season environmend. Stratified mass selection was a cost-effective and successful breeding procedure for adapting tropical populations to short-season environments without exceptions. NDTuxpeño is ready to be used in very short-season areas. It has shown to be the driest population of the experiment with 17.6% grain moisture at harvest time, statistically lower than 18 checks. Thus, confirming its adaptation to short-season environments. NDHighland, NDEto, NDSuwan-1, and NDTusón also showed evidence of adaptation. Adapted varieties represent unique new options for maize breeders to expand the genetic base of their current breeding programs. This gene pool, not present in current U.S. genome sequences or short-season areas, will offer unique early maturing competitive genes and products not available in the northern U.S. industry.</p> Marcelo Javier Carena ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-03 2021-04-03 3 1 BIOCIDE POTENTIAL OF EXTRACTS OF Jatropha curcas L. ON FUNGI Hemileia vastatrix AND Cercospora coffeicola: CAUSAL AGENTS OF TWO MAIN DISEASES OF THE COFFEE TREES <p>The toxicity of J. curcas opens possibilities of breeding program on the production of extracts for controlling the plant pathogens. The H. vastatrix and C. coffeicola fungi causing leaf rust and cercosporiosis diseases, and can be responsible for up to 50% and 30% coffee yield loss, respectively. We developed a biocide for controlling the both fungi, using leaf and stem bark samples from 12 families of J. curcas and submitted them to extraction by ethanol and chloroform solvents. In assays with H. vastatrix, we used 15 μL of spore suspension and 15 μL of the J. curcas extract. Assays with C. coffeicola were performed by using isolates from coffee leaves bearing the disease, grew in PDA medium. For each family, 15 mL of PDA medium and 1 mL of the plant extract were utilized. From the third day on, the mycelial growth was assessed every 24 hours, during 13 days, by evaluating the diameter of the colonies. Data on the antifungal effect of the extracts over C. coffeicola mycelia were subjected to two-way anova. The mean testing was performed as model-identity test, as there was an over-time growth. All 12 extracts of stem bark and leaves of J. curcas, prepared with either ethanol or chloroform, proved to be efficient in controlling H. vastatrix. For C. coffeicola, the extracts inhibited partially the mycelial growth. The extracts that had ethanol as a solvent were more toxic and this result is relevant because ethanol is more accessible to the farmers and the extraction is less expensive.</p> Iasmine n Ramos Zaida Luiz Antônio dos Santos Dias Dandara Rego Muniz Rafael Tassinari Resende João Paulo Viana Leite Olinto Liparini Pereira Juliana Aparecida Diniz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-03 2021-04-03 3 1 WIDE GENETIC VARIABILITY WITHIN AND AMONG FAMILIES IN A GERMPLASM COLLECTION OF Jatropha curcas L. AS REVEALED BY MICROSATELLITE MARKERS <p>J. curcas is a species with wide potential for biofuel production. However, there are few breeding programs and little information on its genetic structure. Studies indicate that the species has narrow genetic variability. We quantify genetic variability, and decomposing it within and among 28 families of a genebank by means of microsatellite markers. Thirty-nine pairs of primers were tested, of which six were polymorphic for a total of 18 alleles, with a mean of three alleles/locus. These six markers allowed genetic variability to be estimated within and among the families through estimates of PIC (0.36), expected (He=0.44) and observed (Ho=0.48) heterozygosity, inbreeding coefficient (f=-0.03), Shannon-Wiener index (H’=0.71), and the formation of 11 clusters. Bayesian analysis classified the families in four groups. The present study was the first to portray the formation of four groups and detect high genetic variability using only accessions from outside the main center of diversity of the species. Analysis of molecular variance showed that most of the variability (92.4%) is contained within families. There was low differentiation among the families (FST=0.07). Collection of genotypes within families should be prioritized because they are where greater variability is concentrated. This strategy was used in setting up the present genebank, which prioritized the collection of more plants per family, efficiently bringing together greater variability. For the first time, the diversity statistics revealed high genetic variability to be exploited in this collection, on the contrary to most studies with J. curcas that have claimed low genetic diversity in the species.</p> Erika da Costa Fernandes Luiz Antônio dos Santos Dias Eveline Teixeira Caixeta Thais Roseli Corrêa Dandara Rego Muniz Odimar Ferreira de Almeida ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-03 2021-04-03 3 1 MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF ELITE LINES OF PAPAYA (Carica papaya L.) VIA SSR MARKERS <p>This study aimed to analyze the genetic variability and to estimate diversity parameters of 23 elite papaya lines based on microsatellite molecular markers. The plant material was composed of elite lines, 18 from the 'Formosa' and five from the 'Solo' group. The expected heterozygosity (HE), observed heterozygosity (HO), and the coefficient of inbreeding (ƒ) for each genotype were estimated. The weighted index obtained the dissimilarity matrix, and the estimated genetic distance was presented graphically through the cluster analysis by the Ward method, as well as by the principal coordinates analysis (PCoA). The genotypes were also analyzed for genetic structure, using the Bayesian clustering method. Genetic variability was observed among the analyzed genotypes, mainly among the lines from the Formosa group. As for HO, four elite lines from the ‘Solo’ group had values equal to zero. However, the elite lines from the ‘Formosa’ group showed higher segregation in the loci with values ranging from 0.05 to 0.14. About ƒ, from the five lines in the 'Solo' group, four exhibited maximum fixation indexes for the analyzed loci, with the variation observed from 0.90 to 1.0, while the lines from the 'Formosa' group had a variation from 0.61 to 1.00. These results indicate the need for greater care in the process of obtaining inbreeding seeds to avoid pollen contamination, as well as the need to advance generations of self-fertilization with the lines from the 'Formosa' group to increase the level of inbreeding and ensure greater stability to hybrids that are developed from them.</p> Adriana Azevedo Vimercati Pirovani Helaine Christine Cancela Ramos Rafaela Pereira Duarte Daniel Pereira Miranda Dieimes Bohry Josefa Grasiela Silva Santana Pedro Henrique Araújo Diniz Santos Messias Gonzaga Pereira ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-03 2021-04-03 3 1 QUALI-QUANTITATIVE GENETIC DISSIMILARITY OF SOYBEAN <p>This study aimed to assess genetic dissimilarity and based on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of 52 soybean cultivars grown in the Northwest Region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The experiment was conducted at the Center for Research and Agronomic Results of the Missions (CEPRAM). The experimental design used was randomized blocks with treatments arranged in four replications. Soybean qualitative attributes were measured, being the maturity group, flower color, pod color, seed shape, tegument color, anthocyanin pigmentation in the hypocotyl, pubescence color, pubescence density, hilum color, seed brightness and biotechnological event. Together, quantitative attributes were measured in ten plants per experimental unit, such as yield, number of pods per plant, number of grains per plant, grain mass per plant and thousand seed mass. The most productive cultivars were P95R90 IPRO, BMX Raio IPRO, NS 5445 IPRO, P95R30 IPRO, P95Y02 IPRO, TMG 7058 IPRO and DM 5958 IPRO. Yield correlates positively with the number of pods, number of grains, grain mass and thousand seed mass. The dendrogram for the quantitative characteristics and the decision tree showed that the formation of the groups and the grain yield were determined mainly by the grain mass and the thousand seed mass. Among the components of variance and genetic parameters, the variables thousand grain mass, grain mass and yield are influenced by 59%, 32% and 29% respectively by genetic effects.</p> Natã Balssan Moura Ivan Ricardo Carvalho Danieli Jacoboski Hutra Robison Davi Patias Furlan Guilherme Mallmann Guilherme Stasiak Dassaiévis Gonzatto Maciel Wilson Leonardo Farias Melo Pedro Felipe Lopes Francine Lautenchleger ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-03 2021-04-03 3 1 URS F FLETE - THE FIRST OAT CULTIVAR FOR FORAGE PRODUCTION IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL <p>The oat cultivar “URS F Flete” (Avena sativa) registration number 32980 from the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA), was developed from the cross ‘LA 9339E17 x LAO-591-NZ 0553’ and is the first cultivar bred for the environmental conditions which predominate in southern Brazil. The cultivar hashigh forage production and good resistance to the main diseases that occur in the region.</p> Luiz Carlos Federizzi Miguel Dall´Agnol Marcelo Teixeira Pacheco Roberto Luis Weiler ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-03 2021-04-03 3 1 BRS FS305 - COMMON BEAN CULTIVAR WITH CALIMA BEAN FOR EXPORT <p>BRS FS305 is a common bean cultivar with calima bean and international standard size (67 g per 100 seeds), indicated for cultivation in Central Brazil and Paraná. It has a semi-early cycle, yield potential of 3,615 kg ha-1 and is moderately resistant to rust, anthracnose and angular leaf spot.</p> Helton Santos Pereira Maria José Del Peloso Thiago Lívio Pessoa Oliveira de Souza Luís Cláudio de Faria Marcelo Sfeir de Aguiar Adriane Wendland Joaquim Geraldo Cáprio da Costa José Luis Cabrera Díaz Mariana Cruzick de Souza Magaldi Ângela de Fátima Barbosa Abreu Israel Alexandre Pereira Filho Válter Martins de Almeida Maurício Martins Leonardo Cunha Melo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-03 2021-04-03 3 1 “BRS URS ENTREVERO” - NEW WHITE CLOVER FORAGE CULTIVAR FOR SOUTH BRAZIL <p>“BRSURS Entrevero” is a white clover cultivar, indicated for intercropping with winter grasses and for oversowing natural and subtropical pastures in areas with high fertility and humidity. It has high quality and forms a mat of stolons that covers completely the soil, with a prostrate habit with the growth buds close to the surface, resulting in a high grazing aptitude.</p> Daniel Portella Montardo Miguel Dall´Agnol Roberto Luis Weiler Maurício Marini Köpp André Pich Brunes Carine Simioni ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-03 2021-04-03 3 1